He held his hand out. I shook hands with him, but not as if I had been longing for the moment to arrive.from The Little Sister, 1949, by Raymond Chandler
Pastor to congregation: Now let’s confess our sins before the Lord.
Introvert: [starts to pray silently]
Pastor: Quietly, in our hearts.
Introvert: [starts to pray silently]
Pastor: Perhaps it’s something you have [makes a suggestion]. Or perhaps [makes another suggestion].
Introvert: [starts to pray silently]
Pastor: Or perhaps it’s simply [makes a third, rather lengthy, suggestion].
Introvert: [starts to pray silently]
Introvert: [confesses sin of wanting to throttle pastor]
Happy Valentine’s Day!
Today’s post is about cognitive science. But it’s also about love, in ways that will become clear.
In this post, I will regurgitate what Jordan Peterson has said about the Big Five personality traits, and then I will have a comment about them. If you doubt my word, or want to hear the same things said in a much more detailed, professional, and actually egg-headed manner, please feel free to watch the JP video below.
I have posted before about the MBTI, a personality typology which some people find insightful, but which was developed by amateurs. The MBTI makes a lot of intuitive sense to many people, but it was still made up. And it is not the only one with this problem. Peterson points out in this video that most personality typologies started as a theory which the developers then tried to apply to actual people. Not so with the Big Five. These are personality traits that emerge naturally from data. (JP says that much more convincingly than I do, of course.) They vary among individuals within every culture, and they are fairly stable throughout a person’s life. These traits are on a continuum, not binary. Each of us comes into this world falling at a certain point on each of these continua. As we mature, we expand our range along the continuum, but we are never going to move our set point from one end of a continuum to the other.
The Big Five Personality Traits
This will be easier to understand if we look at the Big Five.
Openness (to new experiences)
Very extraverted people draw energy from being around others. Very introverted people are drained by this. (This is the only trait from the Big Five that shows up, with the same terminology, in the MBTI.)
People with high neuroticism are more susceptible to negative emotion.
People with high agreeableness want to please others. Less agreeable people are less motivated to please others and more motivated to reach their own goals.
People with high conscientiousness are more industrious and more orderly than people without.
People with high openness tend to be creative types. They are also more likely to be politically liberal. (I am high openness, but due to a long personal journey, not politically leftist. My politics are spite of my temperament. This does mean that typical conservative arguments often don’t appeal to me.)
The Big Five and the Sexes
This is an aside, but Peterson often refers to the Big Five traits when talking about average differences between men and women. Women are, on average, more agreeable than men, higher in neuroticism, and slightly higher in conscientiousness. It is easy to see why these traits would flow from being designed to be moms. Even a greater tendency to negative emotion is an advantage when you’re taking care of preverbal children and you have to be sensitive to their distress.
These Are Factory Settings
It’s easy to see how a person could feel inferior by virtue of having any given one of these traits. It’s also easy to imagine how people who are proud of their trait could think there is something seriously wrong with people on the other end of the continuum.
- Why don’t you want to be around other people?/ Why can’t you ever entertain yourself? (Extraversion)
- Why are you so sensitive?/so insensitive? (Neuroticism)
- Why are you so domineering?/so wishy-washy? (Agreeableness)
- Why are you so lazy and irresponsible/so uptight and controlling? (Conscientiousness)
- Why are you such a stick-in-the-mud/a hippie? (Openness)
All of us have character flaws. And sure, they fall along the fault lines of our Big Five traits, no doubt. But having any given one of these traits is not the same thing as having a sin nature. Conversely, not a single one of these traits will make the bearer a perfect person, either. These are just the factory settings.
And now we get to the love.
I was thinking about these traits as I sat in a Sunday School lesson about the love of God. To be specific, I was bemoaning that my natural tendency is to be low in conscientiousness. This has often caused me trouble with loved ones who are higher in conscientiousness. How can that be a good thing? Why didn’t God set my natural conscientiousness level a little higher? What was He thinking?
In a move typical of people who are high in openness but low in conscientiousness, I was lost in my thoughts rather than paying close attention. But then, the topic of the Sunday School lesson abruptly broke in upon my consciousness.
He loves me.
He loves me, and He made me, and, for some reason, He chose to make a person who is a bit low in conscientiousness. In fact, He chose to make people with all different Big Five factory settings. Ergo, all of these factory settings are by design. He must think we need all kinds.
Ergo, He likes your settings. Even if someone else doesn’t. Even if no one else does.
Happy Valentine’s Day!
Mr. Haig-Ereildoun may be like me. Full of charm, winning everyone’s affection, but somehow not quite doing the job. I can say that the advertising agency chose me to fire because I was the youngest … But I know it was more basic than that. I did win awards. But I lost hours, days, weeks, trying to make jewels out of the twenty-five-cents-off coupons ads. Everyone loved me, but in a practical world I wasn’t what they needed. It’s hard, actually scary, being the kind of people Mr. Haig-Ereildoun and I are.The Diary of an American Au Pair by Marjorie Leet Ford, Anchor Books, 2003, p. 182
The protagonist of my first novel, Nimri, has a personality that in real life would be Kryptonite to me. (Whichever kind of Kryptonite it is that saps Superman’s strength. Green, I think.)
On the MBTI, Nimri is an ESTP:
Sensing (i.e. concrete)
Thinking (no special desire to please people)
ESTPs are observant, energetic, and crude. David Keirsey, in his book Please Understand Me II, calls them Promoters:
Witty, clever, and fun, they live with a theatrical flourish … Promoters have a knack for knowing where the action is. ESTPs have a hearty appetite for the finer things in life … Promoters are so engaging with people that they might seem to possess an unusual amount of empathy, when in fact this is not the case. Rather, they are uncanny at reading people’s faces and observing their body language … ESTPs keep their eyes on their audience, and with nerves of steel they will use this information to achieve the ends they have in mind – which is to sell the customer in some way. Promoters can be hard-nosed utilitarians … they can keep their cool in crises and operate freely … although they ordinarily have little patience with following through and mopping up.Keirsey, Please Understand Me II, pp. 64 – 65
How Did This Guy Get in The Story?
I’m an INFP. I have little natural sympathy for this type. Thus, I didn’t set out to write an ESTP character. But I also didn’t set out to write a likeable character, which perhaps helped open the door to a temperament I wouldn’t normally consider.
When I began writing the novel, I only knew that Nimri was smart, strong, snobbish, and involved in building the Tower of Babel (the ultimate project to promote). I knew I was going to put him in a difficult situation where he’d be humbled and have a chance at redemption. Once I put him in this situation (paraplegic, being cared for by people he once looked down upon, and unable to speak their language), ESTP is the personality that naturally emerged.
At first, Nimri behaves like a jerk, which is what we would expect of anyone in such a situation but especially of this personality type. He first yells at his rescuers and attempts to order them around even though they can’t understand him. He then falls silent and begins to observe them. Later, he tries to assault one of their young women, at which point they start treating him like a prisoner. (ESTPs, remember, are crude and utilitarian.)
At this point, Nimri’s Promoter gifts kick in and start to serve him well. He is energetic and adaptable, so instead of brooding, he starts a diary and occupies himself with things like arm exercises. His ability to read people’s body language helps him as he observes his captors and begins to figure out their names and who is related to whom. When he eventually picks up a little of their language, he begins joking with them. His concrete nature helps him find tasks he can do, such as music and weaving.
By the end of his time with his captors, Nimri does find redemption … but not by turning into an INFP. Instead, the positive aspects of his Promoter personality start to shine. He becomes what you might call a “good” ESTP. Still a source of energy, but energy that’s a bit more positive. Red Kryptonite.
Yet whether using his talents poorly or well, Nimri is a disruptive force in the story.
Some People Are Like That
Perhaps you know a person like this. Some people need only enter a room – or just walk by it – and chaos immediately breaks out. Disruption follows in their wake. They don’t even need to do anything (although they usually do). In Nimri’s case, he causes a stir even when sitting imprisoned in his room not talking to anyone.
And We Need Them
Though I started out to write Nimri as an unlikeable character in need of redemption (as are we all), I actually needed his maddening nature more than I realized. A story needs a disruptive force to keep things moving. Jordan Peterson would say, speaking his language of archetypes, that we need a balance between the forces of order and the forces of chaos. Too much chaos and society falls apart, but too much order can be stifling, enslaving. And so in a novel. You need a steady source of trouble or nothing will happen in your story.
(By the way, Peterson relies heavily on Jung for his archetypes. Concidentally, the MBTI is also derived – distantly – from Jung’s work. I realize there are problems with the MBTI and there would certainly be problems with trying to draw solely on Jung for your complete philosophy of life. However, both are useful when talking about stories.)
The disruptive force in a story is often the villain. It can be that character that readers love to hate. Or it could be something more abstract, like Nature. In some stories of the sane-man-in-a-crazy-world variety, almost all the characters are colorful and disruptive, and only the protagonist is vainly trying to hold things in order. This is true of Dave Barry’s novels, of Janet Evanovich’s Stephanie Plum series, and of the TV series King of the Hill (all of them comedies). It’s a little more difficult if you’re writing a “serious” novel and wish to have a number of admirable characters. You can’t make them all admirable, or no one will cause trouble, and then where will you be? Still, stories can accommodate more than one disruptor. It’s often best if you have several, including some outside force and one or more characters closer to home. In Beowulf, Grendel is the monster but Beowulf himself disrupts Hrothgar’s court by his arrival, and he is also challenged by Hrothgar’s designated mocker.
What’s a favorite story of yours and who is the disruptor in it?
This post is for people who love the MBTI (Meyers-Briggs Type Indicator).
I realize that some people hate it. That’s cool. It has apparently been woodenly applied by overzealous managers (as, what hasn’t?). And some people just don’t like to be “typed.”
If you hate personality typologies, feel free to skip this post.
How the MBTI Works
For the initiated, the MBTI is a personality typology that classifies people according to their “preferences” among four pairs of traits:
- I vs. E: Introversion vs. Extraversion … This is about how people renew their energy: alone or through social interaction. Extraverts are drained by the library, Introverts are drained by parties.
- N vs. S: Intuition vs. Sensing … This is about how people take in information: basically, top-down (intuition) or bottom-up (sensing).
- T vs. F: Thinking vs. Feeling … This is about whether people make decisions more according to impersonal facts or according to how the decisions will affect people.
- J vs. P: Judging vs. Perceiving … This is about whether people like to plan things in advance. Judgers like to have everything planned out. Perceivers like to go with the flow, keep their options open, and can even feel stressed out about nailing down a decision.
Four pairs of traits times two options each results in sixteen basic types. If you meet an MBTI nerd like myself, we love to describe ourselves with letters: “I’m an INTJ,” etc. This is delightfully easy to parody: for example, I am a G-E-E-K and sometimes an S-L-O-B.
Limits of the MBTI
Obviously, the MBTI doesn’t and can’t describe every aspect of a person’s personality. It doesn’t cover energy levels, for example, or sensory processing problems. (E.g. you could be an Extravert who is nonetheless also drained by social situations because you’re so sensitive to physical stimuli.)
It’s possible to have a social style that masks your MBTI type.
You could have values that don’t match your type preferences. (For example, you could be a Feeler who greatly values logical thought.)
Also, some people don’t have a clear preference between one or more pairs of traits. If you read descriptions of the types, sometimes a type description will jump out at you and you’ll say, “I know that person!” But you will also meet people who aren’t easily described by any of the types.
In my opinion, the most easily misunderstood pair of traits is Thinking vs. Feeling. I have never heard a good explanation of this axis that doesn’t misrepresent it. Any attempts at description always end up making it sound as though “thinkers” don’t feel or care about people, and as if “feelers” just emote and are incapable of logic. Neither of those is true. Obviously, every person both thinks and feels.
I’ve concluded there is no point in trying to explain this one. It is seen most clearly in action. For example, an ENFP child will tend to comply with any orders you give him because he wants to please you. An ENTP kid will likely not follow an order unless he can see a good reason for it.
MBTI Types in Literature
My own type is INFP. This is a quiet, reserved type that is also sensitive and dreamy. In one analysis I saw (“The Types in the Apocalypse”), the INFP was “the first guy to get killed.” That sounds about right! In the Lord of the Rings, the INFP is Frodo.
Introverted types might be over-represented among the Lord of the Rings main characters (compared to their distribution in real life) because there is an understandable tendency for authors to create characters who resemble themselves. In looking at my own work, I notice with relief that I do have some extraverted types in main-character roles. Nimri, for example. He starts the story as an SOB (oops, that’s one letter short!), but ends as, maybe, an ESTP.
What about you? What is your type? Favorite type to read about? Are you ever annoyed by encountering too many dreamy, sensitive types in literature?
Please Understand Me II: Temperament, Character, Intelligence by David Keirsey, Prometheus Nemesis Book Company, 1998