Matthew Stirling, Chief of the American Bureau of Ethnology, [says] ‘Among the plants developed by these ancient botanists are maize, beans (kidney and lima), potatoes, and sweet potatoes, now four of the leading foods of the world. Manioc, extensively cultivated by the natives of tropical America is now the staff of life for millions of people living in the equatorial belt. Other important items, such as peanuts, squash, chocolate, peppers, tomatoes, pineapples and avocados might be added. In addition, the Indian was the discoverer of quinine, cocaine, tobacco and rubber …’
Kenneth Mackoman adds to this list, the custard apple, strawberry, vanilla bean, chickle, and cascara, besides a number of others less familiar. His whole list of important plants made up by Indian’s agriculture is impressive, for it contains 50 items, not one of which is an Old World species … The Indian devised a useful method for extracting a deadly poison (cyanide), from an otherwise useful plant, manioc, without losing the valuable starch it contained.
M.D.C. Crawford gave a list of vegetables which were cultivated by the American Indians prior to 1492, which adds the following: Aloe, Alligator Pear, Arrowroot, Star Apple, Cacao, Chili pepper, Jerusalem Artichoke, Cotton, Pineapple, Prickly pear, Pumpkin.
‘The pineapple … originated in America and was the unknown to the people of the Old World before its discovery.’ Just where the Indian found the original plants which they improved upon to produce modern pineapples, we do not know. None of the existing [wild] varieties compares with the domesticated plant … This was … a deliberate and intelligent breeding process … we cannot now retrace the steps by which it was first accomplished.Arthur C. Custance, Noah’s Three Sons, Zondervan 1975, pp. 166 – 168
3 thoughts on “Quote of the Week: Brilliant Native American Botanists”
Interesting. Didn’t know most of them.
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I always thought tomatoes were Mediterranean because of their presence vin Italian dishes until I learned these are native to South America and brought to Europe by the Spanish. I’m impressed with the new world natives contribution to agriculture.
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I know, right? Who could imagine Italy without tomatoes (which came from the New World) or noodles (which came from China)?
I’m told the word ‘tomato’ comes from the Aztec word ‘tomatl.’
Yes, it is an impressive list. I knew about many of these, but not about pineapples and strawberries. (Strawberries!)
Best to you!