Why Everyone Should Be Educated about the Ancient Near East

Here is a representative New Atheist argument from Richard Dawkins:

“The God of the Old Testament is arguably the most unpleasant character in all fiction: jealous and proud of it; a petty, unjust, unforgiving control-freak; a vindictive, bloodthirsty ethnic cleanser; a misogynistic, homophobic, racist, infanticidal, genocidal, filicidal, pestilential, megalomaniacal, sadomasochistic, capriciously malevolent bully.”

Richard Dawkins, The God Delusion, page 31

Of course, each of these epithets could be backed up with an example from Scripture in which God calls Himself ‘jealous’ (not bothering to investigate what was meant by this), or appears to condone – or at least appears in the vicinity of – one of the crimes mentioned.

On its surface, this argument sounds really convincing and even damning … as long as you know nothing about the Ancient Near East.   It basically blames God for all the pre-existing features of the cultures into which He was speaking.

Description Is Not Prescription

First off, let’s dispense with a very basic misunderstanding that nevertheless seems to be widespread.

Just because an incident is recorded in the Bible does not mean that the Old Testament God endorses, let alone prescribes it. Much of the Bible is not prescriptive but is straightforward history.  The Ancient Near East was a horrible place, and any history set there will contain horrors.  In Genesis 19 there is an attempted homosexual gang rape.  In Judges 19 there is a horrific, fatal gang rape, followed by a bloody clan war, followed by a mass kidnapping. In 2 Kings 6 there is cannibalism.  And so on.  It makes no more sense to blame God for these events than it does to blame a historian for the atrocities he documents.

God Commanded Animal Sacrifice, Holy War, Theocracy

But, let’s move on to the more difficult stuff.  It is true that in the Old Testament, God commands His people to establish a theocracy by force.  Furthermore, His worship involves animal sacrifice (which seems mild by comparison, but some people have a problem with this too). To modern eyes, all of this is very very bad.  If God were really good, He would never have set up a theocracy.

I would like to ask the Richard Dawkinses of the world: What kind of society, exactly, do you think the ancient Israelites found themselves in at the time that God gave them all these laws?

Apparently, before the mean ol’ God of Israel came stomping through the Ancient Near East, all the other peoples there were living in a state of secular, egalitarian innocence.  Everything found in the Old Testament was completely new to them.  They had no gods, no priest-kings, no temples in their city-states. They did not offer animal or human sacrifices.  They had no war, no rape, no slavery.  They did not even eat meat.  They were all vegans and went around with Coexist bumper stickers on their camels.

No, no, no.  Come on.  That picture is the exact opposite of the truth.  There was no such thing as an egalitarian, secular society back then, and would not be for millennia.

The Actual Conditions in the Ancient Near East

Public Domain. Maarten van Heemskerck’s interpretation of the Hanging Gardens of Babylon. In the background, the ziggurat (temple) towers over the city.

When God began speaking to the Israelites, here are the historical and cultural conditions that He had to work with:

In the Ancient Near East, literally every kingdom was a theocracy.  If you wanted to live in civilization, that meant that you lived in, or were a farmer attached to, a city-state.  At the center of your city would be the temple of that city’s god.  Typically the king was also the high priest of said god and was considered his or her representative on earth.  So, the god was ruling you through the king.  Every citizen of the city-state owed the king absolute obedience and the god service and sacrifice.  And how was that religion practiced? Typically with animal sacrifice. This is pretty normal for cultures in which livestock represent wealth.  But actually, animal sacrifice was the least of it.  Temple prostitution (which could include ritual rape) was a frequent feature of fertility cults. Human sacrifice, even child sacrifice, was also not unheard-of and in some places it was common. 

Public Domain image of Moloch, the Phonecian god. Children were sacrificed by being placed inside the fiery metal statue. In some versions, the statue is shown with arms stretched out in front of it, into which the baby is placed. This god was popular in Canaan at the time of the Israelite conquest.

In other words, every single person in the ancient world lived in, not to mince words, a brutal theocracy.  All of these kingdoms were far more authoritarian than the system set up by God for the Israelites.  The power of the ruling class was considered absolute.  Being enslaved was routine: because of your own debts, or your parents’, or because your city had been conquered, or because someone fancied you or because you had somehow annoyed the king.   There was no concept of the lower classes having natural rights; and, in many cases, no sense of the rule of law.  Nobody can be a snob or tyrant like an Ancient Near Eastern god-king.

For most people in the Ancient Near East, life was a horror show.

It Wasn’t the Bible World, It Was the Whole World

Public Domain. The temple of Jupiter towers over Rome during the days of the Republic.

Actually, this highly centralized kind of politico-religious system was not confined to the Ancient Near East.  The early civilizations of the Indus Valley had a very similar system to that of ancient Sumer, even down to the temples and city layouts looking almost identical.  The Indian style of centralized religious system can be spotted in Cambodia and Indonesia.  Meanwhile, back in the Ancient Near East, this kind of system persisted, in the centuries following the giving of the Old Testament law, in the civilizations of Crete, Greece, the Hittites, Babylon, Assyria, and Persia.  Thousands of years later, we see similar arrangements in Mayan, Aztec, and Incan culture.  In fact, it is not too big of a stretch to say that until very recent times, a centralized, stratified, bureaucratic theocracy has been the norm, at least among major civilizations, throughout human history.

Public Domain. Pre-Aztec pyramid/temple complex at Teotihuacan.

But that kind of world is strange to us now. We are accustomed to a very different kind of society: relatively open, free, and secular, with lots of social mobility (and no animal sacrifices whatsoever).  For many people, their first encounter with this once-familiar style of centralized theocracy comes when they open the Bible.  They then attribute all this stuff to the God of Israel, as if He had commanded all of this.  But no, He was not instituting theocracy, animal sacrifice, arranged marriage, slavery, or any of the rest of it.  Those things were already universal.  He was, instead, speaking in to cultures for which these things were already the norm.  He spoke to them in their terms, but at the same time transformed the terms to be more in line with His character.

Well, Why Didn’t God Just Fix It?

You might say, “Well, then, why didn’t He tell them to stop having theocracies, sacrifice, and slavery, and to become a modern secular state?”   This would, of course, have made no sense to them.  They would have been completely unable to understand the message.  If they had nevertheless tried to implement it, it would have led to a French Revolution-style Terror and a complete breakdown of their societies.  You cannot completely and instantly transform a society without breaking it.  But He did begin to transform those Ancient Near Eastern cultures by giving them a model of a good theocracy.

Suddenly, people had available to them the option to live in a land where the local god was not represented by a statue (this was unbelievably counterintuitive) and where instead of being arbitrary, He was “righteous” … where His worship did not allow human sacrifice or temple prostitution, but only carefully regulated animal sacrifice … where the behavior of priests was regulated and limited by the law … where institutions like slavery and arranged marriage were, again, limited by relatively humane laws … where each family was supposed to own their own land … where, for many years, there was no king.

If you wanted to set up a sane society in the midst of the Ancient Near East, I don’t know how else you would possibly go about it.


Richard Dawkins, The God Delusion (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 2006)

Public domain images in this post come from the pages of Streams of Civilization, Vol. 1, 3rd ed., edited by Albert Hyma and Mary Stanton. (Christian Liberty Press, Arlington Heights, Illinois, 2016)

Information about life in the Ancient Near East, Cambodia, Indonesia, and the American civilizations comes from Streams of Civilization and from many, many other sources.

25 thoughts on “Why Everyone Should Be Educated about the Ancient Near East

  1. BlackSheep

    Nice article. You are a great writer.

    I was going to comment on the article here, but everytime I started to write it became too long for the comment section. It may turn into a future essay.

    Liked by 1 person

  2. Rachael McKeeth

    Well said. This is very helpful in understanding God better. Thank you! I will definitely share this!
    P.S. I read the God Delusion last year expecting to be challenged, but instead found a bitter, angry man venting.

    Liked by 2 people

      1. I think there are stronger arguments for atheism. TGD is pretty positivist, isn’t it? You have to go deeper than positivism. You have to camp on the problem of evil, the paradox of free will vs. God’s sovereignty, or you have to go after it through epistemology and argue that translation between languages and cultures is not really possible, or sow doubts about whether it’s really possible to know anything at all. Unfortunately, you usually end up disproving your own existence or something like that.

        On the historical side, you have to sow doubts about the process whereby the books of the Bible made it into the canon.


      2. Benjamin Ledford

        I think giving it any sort of philosophical categorization is more credit than it deserves. The only organizing principle appears to be “stuff that has occurred to Richard Dawkins over the years.” He also provides “refutations” of what he thinks are the arguments for theism, but he’s so philosophically inept that it sort of feels unfair to respond to them.

        Liked by 1 person

    1. No, I’m not. Animal sacrifice is a strange one. It, and the concept of ‘clean’ and ‘unclean’ animals, both show up really early in Genesis (4:4 and 7:2), and it just seems to be assumed that these are already concepts that everyone understands. So, I don’t really know where they came from. Possibly God did institute them (maybe in Gen. 3:21?). There is just so much background that we are not given. But the question of where they ultimately came from is about pre-Flood culture, about which we know very very little. We know a lot more about ANE culture in the time of the patriarchs and the Exodus, which is my focus in this post.

      My issue in this post is with people who try to use the practice of animal sacrifice in Exodus, Leviticus, and following to show that the OT God is “barbaric,” without understanding the huge role that it played in the culture and religions of the day (and still plays in some cultures today).


    1. I wouldn’t want to do it full-time. I’m a sensitive soul and debates take a lot of emotional energy. Plus, there are plenty of people who are far more widely read in philosophy than I am. But, I made some friends online and started to realize how many perfectly intelligent people hold very basic misunderstandings about the Scriptures. I may not be much of a scholar, but one thing I do know about is Biblical backgrounds. I also know a bit about anthropology. And all of this is also relevant to my fiction. Hence this post.


  3. Benjamin Ledford

    Another point to make would be that whatever our stated ideals, the Old Testament prescriptions for warfare would be a great improvement to the *actual practice* of modern warfare in many cases.

    We’re shocked at how, for example, Deuteronomy 21 gives instructions for taking brides from among prisoners of war. But consider how common rape and sex trafficking is in war time (even by UN peacekeeping troops!), then look at it again. If a soldier sees a woman he’s attracted to among the enemy, he has to bring her home and support her, not touch her for a month so she has time to mourn her family, and then marry her. *Then* he can sleep with her.

    Once again, far from our ideals, but it would sure be an improvement on the way war is being waged even today in the DR Congo.

    Liked by 1 person

    1. Absolutely. Achilles and the other Greek warriors could probably have used such instructions when they were besieging Troy.

      Someone who lived in Africa once told me that many African cultures are surprisingly close to OT culture; for example, they might practice Leverite marriage.

      It’s always hard to get soldiers to behave, but intentionally using rape as a weapon of war – and teaching child soldiers to do so – is really despicable.


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